Fondateur d'ADKX

Harold K. Hochschild et son héritage

L'histoire est puissante. L'histoire peut captiver l'imagination et inspirer de grands événements - y compris la fondation d'un musée d'histoire régionale. Bien que beaucoup aient joué un rôle dans la création de l'institution que nous appelons aujourd'hui l'Adirondack Experience, c'est la vision, le dévouement et la bienveillance d'un homme - Harold K. Hochschild - qui a donné naissance à ce musée.

Harold K. Hochschild (1892 – 1981) was a corporate leader and philanthropist who played a pivotal role in the history of the Adirondacks. He leveraged his fascination with local history and his personal fortune to create the Adirondack Museum, now known as the Adirondack Experience. Hochschild also engineered the creation of the Adirondack Park Agency, the state entity charged with ensuring a responsible balance between conservation and development.

Gov. Nelson Rockefeller signs the Adirondack Park Agency Act on June 22, [sic] 1971 as commissioners (left to right) Fred O’Neal, Peter Paine, Stewart Kilbourne, Henry Diamond, Robert Hall, Richard Lawrence and (seated) Chairman Harold Hochschild look on. New York State photo from the collection of the Lake George Mirror

Harold K. Hochschild  (seated at left) looks on as Gov. Nelson Rockefeller signs the Adirondack Park Agency Act on June 25, 1971. Hochschild’s fellow members of the Temporary Study Commission (standing left to right) include Fred O’Neal, Peter Paine, Stewart Kilbourne, Henry Diamond, Robert Hall, and Richard Lawrence. New York State photo from the collection of the Lake George Mirror.

In 1904 the Hochschild family acquired a share in a large property known as Eagle Nest in Blue Mountain Lake. Harold spent summers there and gained a lifelong passion for the Adirondack region. He became particularly interested in the Adirondacks’ history, collecting documents and interviewing local residents. In 1952 he published a mammoth, illustrated book, Township 34, about the area immediately surrounding Blue Mountain Lake.

A group of dedicated Blue Mountain Lake residents organized The Adirondacks Historical Association in 1947. Their ambition was to build a local history museum. They acquired a site in the center of the Hamlet of Blue Mountain Lake and commissioned drawings for a modest building to house operations. Those early plans never moved forward. Hochschild subsequently assumed control of the association in 1953. He purchased a much larger property for the project, the former Blue Mountain House resort, located about 1.5 miles from the hamlet’s center. On that elevated spot with sweeping views of Blue Mountain Lake, he built the original Adirondack Museum, which opened its doors to the public in 1957. Hochschild personally subsidized the museum’s operations and led its board until his death in 1981.

In addition to his involvement with the Adirondack Experience, Hochschild pursued many other civic and philanthropic interests. He served on the boards of the New York State Historical Association, the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, and the Correctional Association of New York, among other organizations. In 1970 Governor Nelson Rockefeller tapped him to chair the Temporary Study Commission on the Future of the Adirondacks, which was charged with making recommendations for the Adirondack Park’s long-term conservation and management. While the park was officially established as early as May 20, 1892 (coincidentally the day Hochschild was born), it enjoyed few legal protections. After what turned out to be a contentious behind-the-scenes struggle, Hochschild successfully managed to push through legislation authorizing the creation of the regulatory Adirondack Park Agency. Governor Rockefeller signed the legislation into law on June 25, 1971.

The personal wealth that enabled Hochschild to establish the Adirondack Experience and support his other philanthropic interests derived from his interests in a company known as American Metal. He joined the company in 1913 at a time when his own father, Berthold Hochschild, was chairman. Harold eventually became president, then chairman. While he was chairman, American Metal merged with another company and became American Metal Climax. In 1957, Hochschild stepped down as chair but continued to serve on the board until 1974.

The Adirondack Experience is mindful that from the 1930s through the 1950s, American Metal’s profits, and the Hochschild family’s wealth, were largely derived from mining operations in the Copperbelt of what later became Zambia. Low wages paid to thousands of African workers in what was then a British colony contributed to the company’s high profitability. Working and living conditions in company-owned housing could be harsh and even brutal. For much of this period, prejudicial work rules prevented Black people from holding supervisory and executive-level positions. These unfortunate realities are at odds with the values of the Adirondack Experience and our nation today. The museum recognizes that Hochschild’s philanthropy and the Adirondack Experience’s current financial strength were, at least in part, facilitated by harm done to others, which is regrettable.

In 2023 the Adirondack Experience commissioned a report about American Metal’s business practices from Duncan Money, PhD, a historian specializing in the subject of copper mining in Africa. His report can be accessed ici. Money observed that for much of its history, American Metal supported the status quo in colonial Africa. He also noted that American Metal, under Hochschild’s leadership, eventually shifted its position to encourage anti-colonial leaders in Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia) as it transitioned towards independence and did so “before any other section of big business.” Hochschild additionally became chair in 1957 of the African American Institute, now the Africa-America Institute, whose purpose was to provide opportunities for African students in both United States and Africa. In 1960 he also hosted an important anti-colonial nationalist, Kenneth Kaunda, at Eagle Nest and helped introduce him to elected officials and the World Bank. Hochschild provided support for political prisoners in South Africa and Southern Rhodesia during the 1960s.

Throughout his life, Harold K. Hochschild continually deployed his capacity for hard work, political influence, and generosity to create change and further important causes. The Adirondack Experience is grateful to him for his dedication to preserving the stories and material culture of the Adirondacks as well as the landscape itself. In this, Hochschild leaves behind a legacy that remains central to the mission of the Adirondack Experience.

Information about the Adirondack Experience’s current work in the area of Diversity, Equity, Access, and Inclusion can be found ici.

More about Harold K. Hochschild’s life, which included serving as an American intelligence officer during WW II who interrogated German prisoners of war, can be found in two books. The first was edited and the second was written by his son, Adam Hochschild. The first, Harold K. Hochschild 1892-1981, was privately printed in 1982. The second, Half the Way Home: A Memoir of Father and Son, was published by Houghton Mifflin and is still in print. Both are available for review in the library of the Adirondack Experience.

Le prix H.K.H.

Le prix Harold K. Hochschild de l'Adirondack Experience honore la mémoire du fondateur du musée, dont la passion pour les Adirondacks, ses habitants et son environnement a inspiré la création de cette institution, qui se consacre à la compréhension et à la promotion de l'identité régionale unique du parc des Adirondacks. Par le biais du prix Harold K. Hochschild, l'Adirondack Experience cherche à reconnaître, soutenir et renforcer les leaders intellectuels et communautaires du parc des Adirondacks, et à souligner leur contribution à la culture et à la qualité de vie de la région. Il espère également encourager les autres à apprécier le fait que le leadership de la région se présente sous de nombreuses formes et provient de nombreuses communautés différentes du Parc des Adirondacks.

Le prix peut être décerné à des organisations ainsi qu'à des particuliers. Bien qu'il ne soit pas nécessaire de résider dans le parc, le prix est décerné en reconnaissance d'une réalisation ou d'un service ayant un lien évident avec la région des Adirondacks ou ayant un impact sur celle-ci. Le lauréat du prix reçoit un exemplaire original de l'ouvrage de Hochschild qui fait autorité, Township 34, et est honoré lors du gala de bienfaisance de l'Adirondack Experience en été.

Anciens lauréats du prix Harold K. Hochschild

Anciennement appelé "Prix du fondateur".

Francis B. Trudeau

Richard W. Lawrence

Craig Gilborn
Ancien directeur de l'Adirondack Museum

Frances Seaman
Historien local

Paul Jamieson

Clarence Petty

John Rugge
Médecin, pionnier des soins de santé

Garde-chiourme Cadbury

Barbara McMartin
Auteur, Historien

Harold A. Jerry, Jr.

Timothy L. Barnett
Conservationniste, écologiste, naturaliste

Janet Parker Decker

Arthur V. Savage
L'homme de la Renaissance

Ellen Nadia Maroun
Défenseur des droits des personnes handicapées

Radio publique du Pays du Nord

Elizabeth (Betsy) Folwell
Écrivain, historien, éditeur

Meredith Prime
Conservateur, responsable d'organisations à but non lucratif

Richard Merrill
Éducateur, historien, leader communautaire

Peter S. Paine, Jr.
Père fondateur de l'Agence du parc des Adirondacks

Jerry Jenkins
Écrivain, naturaliste, enseignant

John et Margot Ernst
Leaders communautaires et environnementaux

Joan K. Davidson
Philanthrope, fonctionnaire, leader civique

Frances Beinecke
Leader environnemental, philanthrope

Dave Mason & Jim Herman
Dirigeants communautaires, philanthropes

Bill McKibben
Leader, écrivain et défenseur de l'environnement

Le projet Jefferson, un effort conjoint de l'Institut polytechnique de Rensselaer, d'IBM Research et du Fonds pour le lac George.
Initiative de recherche et de préservation de l'environnement

The Adirondack Forty-Sixers, Inc.
Responsables de la conservation et de la préservation

Barbara Glaser
Spécialiste de la conservation de l'environnement, de la préservation de l'histoire et de la défense de la communauté

Linda et Sarah Cohen
Philanthropes et dirigeants communautaires

Ross Whaley
Educator and Non-profit Leader

Edward McNeil
Conservation and Preservation Leader

Un couple profite de la vue sur le lac Blue Mountain depuis la terrasse du Lake View Cafe de l'Adirondack Experience.

Soutenez la riche histoire
de la région des Adirondacks

Soutenir la riche histoire de la région des Adirondacks